Uterus of the Female Dog
The uterus, as you have seen, is composed of two very different parts; continuing down the oviducts, emerge the uterine horns which communicate with the uterus by means of a very tiny hole. The urine horns are V-shaped, and are approximately 12 to 15 cm long. The body of the uterus is a muscular, tubular and deep organ, the shape and size of which varies considerably depending on the age, the cycle in which the dog is in and of course whether or not the dog has given birth before. We currently know that once all the changes related to pregnancy and giving birth have taken place, the uterus of the dog takes no less than 150 days to return to its natural state, which means it is perfectly justifiable for the female dog to rest between one birth and the next, with a heat period in between. It is precisely in the uterus (in the urine horns) where the embryos will become fetuses during pregnancy.
The urine walls are composed of three layers of tissue, the serous, the muscular portion and the endometria, which is internal and thickest and which is reinforced during the period of estrus. The body of the uterus is separated form the vagina by a channel called cervix which generally remains closed, only opening during estrus to allow the ascent of sperm towards the uterus or during the last days of pregnancy, enabling the puppies to come out. Precisely due to its structure and narrowness, is impossible to pass any instruments through the uterine neck in order to observe the uterus.
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